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Modern agriculture of micro-irrigation technology

点击次数:  信息来源:  发布时间:2018-08-15 11:37:50  【打印此页】  【关闭
Compared with traditional agriculture, modern agriculture is widely used in modern science and technology, modern industrial production and scientific management methods to the socialization of agriculture, including the modernization of technical equipment and management of the two aspects of modernization that complement each other. Soil, fertilizer, water, medicine and power inputs such as efficiency, is an important characteristic of modern agriculture. This article attempts from the perspective of the scientific and reasonable irrigation and fertilizer shi, in order to develop modern agriculture as a starting point, high efficiency, low investment and low negative impact of fertigation technology and its application in agricultural production. 
First, the essential characteristics of fertigation 
(a) the basic concept of fertigation 
Fertigation is a combination of irrigation and fertilization developed a kind of modern advanced agricultural technology, it through irrigation systems, to liquid fertilizer to crop root soil, so that we can in the fertilizer rate, fertilization time and achieve high accuracy in such aspects as application space. Not only can be combined with fertilization, and soluble pesticides, weeding, soil disinfectant can also be applied with the aid of irrigation systems. Fertigation has a variety of methods, such as surface irrigation fertilization, irrigation, fertilization and microspray irrigation fertilization. Currently microspray irrigation fertilization technology is one of the most widely used application technology. Micro-irrigation is also called the local micro-irrigation, is in accordance with the requirements for crop water requirement, through the low pressure pipe system and installation on the level at the end of the pipe irrigation, the water in small flow uniformly and accurately delivery directly to the crop roots near the soil surface or irrigation method of the soil layer. It is characterized by low water flow, an irrigation continues for a long time, water cycle is short, need to work pressure is low, can accurately control the irrigation water, the water and nutrients to plants directly. Micro-irrigation has four forms: micro spray, yongquan microspray irrigation and drip irrigation, (poa pratensis), generally four forms can be combined with fertilization, but the most used is combined with drip irrigation and fertilization. 
(2) the core content of microspray irrigation fertilization technology 
1. The system composition: complete microspray irrigation system is controlled by a water project, the first hub, ShuPeiShui pipeline, water of four parts. (1) water supply project: rivers, reservoirs, Wells, pond, etc., the water quality can meet the demands of micro-irrigation. (2) the first control hub: by motors, pumps, filters, fertilizer application, control and measurement equipment (pressure regulating valve, shunt valve, water meter, etc), automatic operation is first equipped with computer automatic control system. (3) ShuPeiShui pipeline: main, the branch pipe, capillary. (4) irrigation: irrigation device (i.e., drop head or nozzle) has a variety of, in accordance with the hydraulic energy dissipation way drop head can be divided into four categories, namely: the contraction type head, long flow tube drops head, eddy current type head, pressure compensation type drops. At present commonly used and drip irrigation belt, namely the drop head (flow energy dissipation) and capillary processing as a whole, drip irrigation with pressure compensation and the compensation of two types. There are different kinds of micro nozzle also refraction type, rotary, pulse, etc. 
2. The fertilization methods: there are five main. One is the method of fertilizing tank. Fertilizing tank and pressure regulating valve in parallel, work principle of shunt. Don't need a powered equipment, fertilization can generally made from metal, plastic or neutral glass fiber reinforced plastic, metal cans wall should be painted anticorrosive paint. Tank according to the application area, the volume of each fertilizer fertilizer rate per unit area and tank solution concentration. Second, venturi fertilizer application method. Venturi sensor and pressure regulating valve in parallel, by using the theory of jet. Have certain requirements for flow and pressure, open container fertilization are available, and simple structure, convenient use, low cost. Suitable for small area of micro-irrigation. Three is open type fertilizer tank pressure fertilization method. In a single shed from the pressure drip irrigation fertilization system, the fertilizers in the open storage tank or reservoir, melting liquid fertilizer after filtering (filters or laminated filter) by the pressure drop into the soil. The advantage is using open container, easy to use, low cost. The disadvantage is that pressure is small, due to the small open containers, frequent injection water. Four is the pump suction side injection system. In the buried depth of groundwater is relatively shallow, and use the centrifugal pump, the pump suction side injection system can be used. Its principle is the use of negative pressure, the formation of centrifugal pump suction tube will fertilizer solution (in open container) suction pumps. To prevent the backflow of water caused by chemical fertilizer to the contamination of water supplies, non-return valve installed in the suction pipe. To prevent not enter the system, in fat absorption tube head package a strainer. Advantage is not the system and the power, simple structure, easy to use, open type containers are available, and the price is low. The disadvantage is that have a certain request for the burial depth of the water. 5 it is pumping system. Advantage is fat liquid concentration is stable and fertilization are of good quality and high efficiency. Suitable for large area microspray irrigation fertilization. Faults need additional power. Fertilizer injection pump injection pressure is greater than the water pump outlet pressure, according to the microspray irrigation fertilization area size, choose the suitable injection rate and injection capacity. 
3. The filtration equipment: to prevent blockage in the system, the water must undergo purification treatment. There are four kinds of commonly used filter: gravel filter screen mesh, centrifugal filter, filter and laminated filter. Sand filter and centrifugal filters used in large and medium-sized system of the primary filter. When good water quality, mesh filter is used at the last stage of micro-irrigation, when bad water quality can meet after sand filter or centrifugal filters are used as final stage filter. Laminated filter can be used for the primary and ultimate filtering. When choosing mesh filter and laminated filter generally choose to more than 120 mesh specifications. 
(3) the characteristics of microspray irrigation fertilization 
Through integration of sewage sludge into the field, using the "eat much food less" way of fertilizing, will effectively improve the utilization efficiency of farmland water and fertilizer use efficiency. Its main characteristic is: it is easy to absorb, fertilizer effect quickly. Because of nutrients in solution state, can rapidly penetrate into the soil, absorbed by crops root, sprayed on the crop leaf nutrient at the same time, can also be used for foliar absorption. Than save 30% ~ 50% of the conventional application of fertilizer fertilizer; Second, improve crop quality and commercial, improve crop growth environment, irrigation uniformity and evenness of up to 80% ~ 90%; Three is to ensure the sustainability of agricultural production stability, on the terrain and soil suitability is strong, not occupation of land; Four is to avoid the fertilizing machine running on soil pressure plate strong, is conducive to protect the soil structure; 5 it is under the condition of the facility cultivation, reduce the humidity of the air, reduce plant diseases and insect pests, inhibit weeds; Six is reducing the labor input, fertilizer and light due to the crop disease, is also relatively reduced labor inputs for the prevention and control of diseases. According to the survey, fertigation, compared with flooding and fat, quarterly labor-saving 15 ~ 20 per acre. 
Second, microspray irrigation fertilization technology application 
(a) microspray irrigation fertilization system design 
Mainly includes three aspects: one is microspray irrigation fertilization parameters, including the crop water requirement, daily water consumption intensity of micro-irrigation crops, soil moisture ratio, irrigation uniformity, microspray irrigation water use coefficient, etc. Second, determine microspray irrigation fertilization system, including irrigation quota, irrigation cycle, every time the total irrigation time, irrigation frequency and irrigation. Three is the first choice, according to experience, protectorate vegetable cultivation in the appropriate USES embedded type drip irrigation pipe, drip irrigation belt and thin wall labyrinth drip line, economic and durable, easy to use. Fruit trees with micro nozzle and small pipe flow, pressure compensation type head. 
(2) the choice of the fertilizer 
Compared with conventional fertilization, microspray irrigation fertilization has the characteristics of high utilization rate of fertilizer, fertilizer is convenient. Therefore, microspray irrigation fertilizer fertilizer amount less, only the equivalent of habit blunt fertilizer consumption of about 50%, according to proportion is big, can amount to more than 70% of the total fertilization. In high soil fertility and soil nutrient content is very rich also can not basal dressing, under the condition of increased fertilizer proportion and number of times. At the same time, in order to prevent the drop head congestion, microspray irrigation requirement to choose good solubility in fertilizer, such as urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, etc. Application of compound fertilizer, as far as possible choose completely instant sexual special fertilizer. In the absence of instant fertilizer in full, and with good solubility and available nutrient ratio suitable fertilization instead. Is really necessary to use cannot be completely dissolved fertilizer, must first dissolve fertilizer in a basin or bucket, wait for after the precipitation, the upper fat mixture to fertilizing tank into the drip irrigation system, remaining residue in the grave. 



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